I admit I am a little sad, this is the last promotion I see for some reason they just do not work.
So see the questions , the link to the questions are at this link,
Course 4 Herb growing-Charles Novak student;
D' Abaldo Herbal School
Student: Charles Novak
Master Herbalist: Danny Abaldo
Herbal Diploma 1 – Course 4
The Medicinal Herb Growers - Volume 1, Test
Can different species of the same plant family, be planted together in the same growing area (growing room, plot, outdoor garden, green house, or raised bed) and still produce a true harvest of the original plant set in the ground ?
Not with outcrossing plants, outcrossing plants can hybridize with other species in the same genus, as long as they are flowering at the same time, this is known as chance hybridization. For example growing blocks of plants of Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea purpurea (while both are flowering at the same time) to close together will produce random hybrids. Pollinators such as bees would move pollen from one species to another species (within the same family, during flowering of both species) The end result would be that the harvest of the plants leaves, stems, and roots will be identical to the plants placed in the ground, but the seeds that are produced (due to the cross hybridization) would not be true to the plant placed in the ground. The seeds may take on characteristics of one, or both plants. And when these seeds are planted, and taken to harvest, the produce will not have its true origin to the medicinal plant that was placed in the earth.
Other medicinal outcrossing herbs that will chance hybridization are: lavender, mint motherwirt, oregano, sage, and skullcap (all in the Lamiaceae family) Also Bitter Melon, Cucumber, Gourd (in the Cucurbitaceae family) Also Boneset, Chamomile, Feverfew, Goldenrod, Gravel Root, Marigold, spilanthes, Sunflower, and Yarrow (all in the Aster, Asteraceae, family) Also Mullien, (in the figwort: Scorphulariaceae family) Plantain (in the Plantaginaceae family) Poppy (in the Papaveraceae family) Rhubarb (in the Polygonaceae family) And Wild Yam (In the Dioscoraceae family)
How can chance hybridization be prevented ?
One method to stop chance hybridization is by isolation. Plants that are subject to chance hybridization are best grown at a distance of 100 feet apart to prevent chance hybridization (like members of the Aster and Mint families) Other successful methods of isolation would be Ecological Barriers, like a row trees, or a ravine, or grouping, and planting of non-like family plants. Also a floating row cover may be used, a floating row cover is a fabric that can be used to drape over the plants, which may keep pollination more localized.
How does a plant that uses specific pollinators (that are not native to your surroundings) achieve pollination to set fruit or seed ?
Well if the specific pollinators that the plant needs are not native to your surrounding, and the native pollinators to your surroundings will not pollinate your plant. Also you see that the plant has began to make flowers, but no fruit, then one may hand pollinate. On a sunny, none rainy day when the flower is fully open, and the pollin is dust like, you can use a soft bristle brush (like a child's water color brush, not a painting brush) and softly brush each flower on each plant, and move to the next plant, brushing the flowers on the next plant with the brush which has already brushed flowers from the other plant. Effectively you are preforming the same work that the bees in the garden in nature would preform, and male pollen will be transferred to the female flowers. Just lightly, softly brush each flower on each plant of the same species, and family, and move to the next always using the same brush, and pollination will be achieved.
Examples of herbs that may need hand pollination are: Mandrake, Vanilla, and Yellow Lady's Slipper Orchid. ***Keep in mind that hand pollination can prevent “chance hybridization” in outcrossing plants****
Why is it important to sow seeds in the fall ?
Sowing seeds in the fall will give the seeds a forest like condition for seedlings that need very cold, and moist condition to germinate. Sowing seeds in the fall for spring germination is very well for slow germinators native to the temperate north, this method reproduces germination as it occurs in the wild. Many times this method is successful, where other methods have failed. Seeds that respond well to fall sowing (planting) are: Black Cohosh, Chinese Coptis, Devils Club, Ginseng, Goldenseal, Yellow Gentian, Wild Jobs Tears, Osha, Rhodiola, Virginia Snakeroot, Spikenard, and American Wild Yam.
What is the best way to successfully plant, and bring to harvest a native, or non-native plant that you have never grown ?
The only answer is observation in the wild, or research of the plants natural native growing surroundings. The result you want is to mimic the plants original growing habitat in the wild. As a example, if one wanted to grow a certain cactus, and has failed, but when observing the cactus in it's natural habitat you see that the cactus lives in sand that is truly dry, high heat area, hours of light a day it receives, low humidity are, hours of dark received a day, which only receives water 4 times a year, then you have specific knowledge of how to grow this certain cactus, or any other special, or certain plant.
Is fire ever needed for germination ?
Actually yes, with some species, like White Sage. Although White Sage is not dependent on fire to germinate, but the fire does stimulate it to germinate. Using appropriate sized, deep wooden flats, White Sage was sowed in potting soil that contained a high amount of coarse, sharp sand. The White Sage seeds were cover sparingly with soil, and tamped down firmly. A flash fire was then built, and lite on top of the wooden flat, near the center, away from the wooden sides of the flat. The fire was left till it had burnt out, and then like a desert rain, the flat was watered sparingly. Another flat of White Sage was sowed in identical conditions, but with out the fire, and after 3 weeks both flats had germinated, but the flat with which the flash fire was made on, germinated more seedlings, and healthier seedlings, that the flat without the flash fire.
Overwintering, what is it, why do it, and how to do it ?
Overwintering is the method of docking, or cutting back a plant to it's bare minimum size to stay alive during the winter months, where the plant would had died due to the weather. Overwintering a plant, will provide the grower with a already living plant, which does not have to be planted from seed, germinated, and grown to full maturity to harvest. The docked plant will begin to grow again in the next season, and will have a advantage on seed sown of the same species, as it will grow faster, reach it full potential quicker, and produce more harvest. The proper method of overwintering would be to have the plant in a fast draining soil, kept in a warm location, and to cut the plant back to its stalk, about 4 inches above the ground. This environment ensures that the crown of the plant, the crown is the large mass where the roots emerge from under the soil, will continue to live through the winter, where it would normally die, and rush back to regrow itself during the next growing season. The advantages speak for themselves.
Explain a few well grown plants will produce more that many poorly grown plants ?
It's all about nutrients, if a few plants are given proper space to grow, and cultivated, composted, and watered, then they will always give a higher yield than many plants starved for proper attention.
Explain choosing plants appropriate to your bio bioregion ?
When choosing plants for your growing area, choose heirloom species that have successfully cultivated in your area in the past, as well as medicinals that local to the wild land area. This choosing in this manor will ensure a crop that will grow, considering that it has grown wild, or successfully grown by others, with no issues.
Explain plants gravitate to their preferred habitat ?
As an example, lets say that you planted outdoors a large crop of a certain species, and this species grew well, and went to seed. The area of the certain species was in full sun, and as mentioned grew well, and went to seed. The next growing season, you notice that same certain species popping up from the ground in a different area in the shade (when you certain species went to seed the wind took some seed and deposited it there) , and you decided to leave it to grow. At the end of the season you see that the certain species that came up in the shade grew much larger, and more robust than all the plants that you have sown in the full sun, producing a much greater harvest. We see that the plants knew what conditions, what habitat, was best for itself. We would be wise to take this advice from the seedling that grew to grand proportions, and the following season plant in shade, rather than in full sun.
What are advantages of compost or rotted manure ?
If a plant looks unhealthy, yellowing in color, or not developing quickly enough, dress compost or rotted manure around the crown of the plant. Work the compost in with your fingers, compost is tolerated by all plants, and slowly releases nutrients, increasing the nutritional content of foods, and the medicinal activity of herbs.
Explain selecting seeds, and seedlings for vigor ?
When choosing seed for your growing it is best to choose the seeds that are the largest, and most robust to grow to maturity. Any seedlings that appear to be stressed, or small, or undersized, or placed too closely together are to be removed, and disposed of into the compost pile. Over the coarse of several growing generations this will make for producing a strain that is resistant to disease, resilient to environmental stresses.
Explain searching for, and removing of undesirable plants ?
As your plants grow to maturity, they will develop their own traits, and how productive the plant will be at harvest time. These traits include: size and shape of the plant, the color and the smell of the leaves, and the quality of the fruits and flowers. If any of these traits seem standard, or if the plant seems to be prone to insect damage, then it should be removed, and placed in the compost pile. By practicing this method, you are selecting the very best of the plants, and these very best traits will be passed in the breeding to the seeds, making for a seed to produce the very best plant.
What can one do to soil that does not have enough nutrients to support plant life, to make it viable for plant life ?
One answer would be to cover crop, this can be accomplished by taking the area in which you intend to grow in and plant a total cover crop of a plant that will feed, or nourish you soil, so that it may have plentiful nutritional value to support plant life. You can plant leguminous plants, cover crop of clover, peas, and fava beans, will infuse the soil with sufficient nitrogen to support the growth of most herbs. Additional nitrogen may be deposited through droppings from birds that are feeding locally. When plants produce dark green leaves, this is a sign of sufficient nitrogen in the soil. If the plant leaves began to turn yellow, then the plant is going dormant, there is not enough nitrogen in the soil (add compost to the soil), or the soil is not draining off the water, meaning the plants roots are drowning.
What advantages are there from growing a plant from seed, rather than a cutting ?
Plant grown from seed produce a larger root structure, Seed grown plants are also better overall plants than those produced from cuttings. This is because plants grown from seed build a complete and deep reaching root structure, and are more resistant to crown rot. Seed grown plants show more vigor, stature, yield, and longevity. Growing from seed improves genetic diversity, because each plant is genetically not identical, where plants grown from cuttings are all clones, and are all identical. Growing from seed will produce a diverse plant population, these plants will show more resistance to environmental challenges also.
What is the life of seed stock ?
The lifespan of seed vary, dependent on species. Some seeds germinate best when they are very recent, like Coltsfoot, and Valerian, which are known to has short lived seeds. Other seeds give their highest germination rate after being ages for a year, or more, such as Cucumber, and Hopi Tobacco. Although many seed are viable for extended periods of time. It is documented that dry stored seed of Evening Primerose, and Yellow Dock can remain viable for up to 80 years. Mullien seeds can lie dormant in the ground for decades, and then germinate when the ground is tilled, and the sunlight hits them. Seeds of the Lotus plant have been shown to give 100% germination after being stored in moist peat for 237 years !
What water is best for plants ?
For plants the best water to use would be rain water, or surface water. Rain eater comes from the sky naturally, or can be collected in barrels. Surface water comes from, rivers streams, lakes, or ponds, these waters are alive with bacteria,, and are preferred for watering plants.
When should you water ?
Watering should be done in the late afternoon, or at night (unless fungus diseases is a problem, then you should water in the early morning) By watering in the late afternoon or at night, this will stretch the times in between watering by minimizing the of water evaporation. It is typical for plants to naturally absorb water in the cool hours of the day, while photosynthesis occurs when the sun hits the plants. Remember moist soil, is live soil, having bacteria, fungi, and earthworms living in it. Dried out soil, is dead soil.
What can placed on soil to help in water retention ?
Coir is often used on soil to help in retaining water (due ti it's water retaining value). Coir is made from the ground up pit from the peri-carp of the coconut, and is considered a type of mulch. It should be allowed to absorb water, then after it swells to it's maximum, it should be spread thickly over the plant beds, covering the weeds. Due to it's sponge like value, the coir will hold and supply much more than watering alone, and will continue to reabsorb water with ever rain, or watering cycle.
What can be added to the soil to increase draining ?
Pumice can be added to the soil to increase draining water from the soil. Horticultural pumice is volcanic rock that is broken down till it is very small, almost grain like in appearance. The addition of pumice to soil will greatly improving the draining quality of the soil. Where soil would previously retain a abundance of water, with the adding, and mixing of horticultural pumice to the soil, the water will drain, not leaving the plants roots to drown or rot in the excessive water.
D' Abaldo Herbal School
Student: Charles Novak
Master Herbalist: Danny Abaldo
Herbal Diploma 1 – Course 5
911 Herbal First Aid, Test
All the herbs listed her, may have, and do have multiple uses, beyond the stated uses in this test. Please be aware that when a herb is used to answer a test question, that the answer does not included all uses of the mentioned herb.
Name a Herb that can stop a heart attack ?
Cayenne is known for it's ability to stop heart attacks, when given to a person in the form of, a tincture or Raw power mixed in water. Cayenne is also known to control blood pressure, actually the taking of cayenne capsules will make a perfect blood pressure in the body. Cayenne is also known for it's ability to stop internal bleeding, when coming for the intestinal track, or upper bowel.
Name a herb that will stop a bodily parasitic infection ?
Chaparral when taken if the form of a tincture, or a tea, or when taken regularly in capsule form will help to kill a parasitic infection, and the continued regularly taking of chaparral will safe guard the body for reinfection of parasites.
Name a herb that will stop a severe migraine headache ?
Feverfew is know for it's remarkable ability to stop migraine headaches shortly after taking in the form of, tincture, or tea.
Name a herb that will help to heal the liver ?
Turmeric is great for healing the liver, and has been proved that when taken regularly it has the potential to reverse liver damage. Turmeric should be taken regularly daily in the form of capsules, or powdered in the form of a tea.
Name a herb that is a anti-inflammatory ?
Cloves, Rosemary, Ginger, Turmeric, and Boswellia (frankincense) all are effective anti-inflammatory when taken in the form of teas, and capsules. When taken regularly the effects can help to the point of allowing healing to take place, without the inflammation.
Name a herb that will stop a asthma attack ?
Lobelia has been documented as a asthma attack rescue herb. When a person is suffering from a asthma attack, the Lobelia should be placed in a vaporizer and inhaled. This treatment should be continued until all signs of asthma are gone.
Name a herb that will help prevent, or help to end the flu or the common cold, or viral infections ?
Chinese Skullcap, Elder Flowers, and Echinacea, but not while you are sick, Echinacea is a preventive mostly, all when taken in the form of a tincture will help help to prevent, to calm, or to bring to a end the flu, common cold, or viral infections. Taken regularly in the cold and flu season, is a great preventive herbal measure. Black elder is one of the best as a preventative daily tonic.
Name a herbal that will help control bi-polar disorder, or depression ?
Ashwagandha is known and tested with great effect on controlling bi-polar disorder in people, when taken in the correct dosage, and when taken regularly. Ashwagandha plant is taken in the form of capsules. St. Johns Wort has been taken for depression in the form of capsules, but with the outstanding results that Ashwagandha has been given, it is probably better to begin it, if the person has a issue tolerating the Ashwagandha, then I would try the St. Johns Wort. Both should be taken in the form of capsules.
Name a herb that can remove plaque buildup in the arteries, that will lead to heart attack ?
Barley grass is known for, tested, and documented that when taken on the form of a tea, or in the form of capsules, to remove plaque buildup in arteries, doing so in such great extent that surgery was not needed when taken in a three week period. Barley should be taken in the form of a tea, to begin to remove buildup immediately. But should be taken regularly in the form of a capsule to prevent the recurrence of plaque buildup in arteries.
Name a herb that will help to strengthen the heart, and smooth the bearing of the heart ?
Hawthorne has been tested, and documented to not only strengthen the hear, but to also smooth the beating of the hear when taken regularly in the form of capsules.
Name a herb that will stop bleeding in a open cut or wound ?
Placing Cayenne Powder, or pouring Honey directly into the open cut, or wound, will stop the bleeding, and promote coagulation, and healing.
Name a herb that will stop muscular pain or spasms ?
Mother Wort, Cramp Bark, and Lobelia, taken as a tincture will help to calm muscles spams, and relieve muscle pain.
Name a herb that will stop urinary track infection ?
Juniper Leaf, Yarrow, and Uva Ursi, when taken in the form of a tea, will help to stop a urinary track infection.
Name a herb that is a antiseptic wash for cuts, scratches, and bruises ?
Propolis, Myrrh, Goldenseal, and Witch Hazel is used as a antiseptic wash when taken in the form of a tincture.
Name a herb that will help with digestive functions ?
Fennel Seed, Marsh Mellow, Irish Moss, Garlic, and Meadowsweet, will all aid in digestive functions, when taken in the form of a tincture.
Name a herb that will help control a cough ?
Elecapane, Horehound, Wild Cherry, Lemon, and Ginger, when taken in the form of a syrup, made with honey, will help to control, or stop a cough.
Name a herb that will help to kill cancer, or shrink tumors ?
Pau D'arco has been used since the 1800's as a cancer treatment, also Chaparral, has been used in the treatment of cancer as well as for shrinking tumors, Chaparral is a great blood purifier. Both should be taken in the form of a tincture, or capsules.
Name a herb that will help with skin conditions ?
Burdock Root, and Chaparral have both been used for the treatment of dermatitis as well as psoriasis, when taken in the form of a tincture, capsules, or a nasty tasting infusion. Best way to treat this external health issue is the key to understand herbs many times are used external for this condition and external.
Name a herb that will help to pass urine in a person who suffers from urine retention ?
Blue Vervain has been used for a very long time as a diuretic to help the body release urine, this also helps to remove toxins from the body. Blue Vervain should be taken in the form of a tincture, or a tea.
Name a herb that will help with human prostate issue ?
Stinging Nettle when taken in the form of a tea has been clinically proven to help reduce benign prostatic hyperplasia, and help reduce enlarged prostate. Today doctors don't exactly even know why Stinging Nettle helps with these symptoms. Also Chaparral, saw palmetto, the mineral Zinc.
I would still like to see comments, questions anything, some interaction, I am doing this to teach you and answer any herb questions or your own insight's you would like to comment on.